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Body Humours
Standard Facts About humours
Basic Components
Unani Medicine is based on the Greece philosophy. According to Basic Principals of Unani the body is made up of the four Basic elements These Elements Are:-
  • Earth
  • Air
  • Water
  • Fire

These Elements have different Temperaments

  • Cold
  • Hot
  • Wet
  • Dry

After mixing and interaction of four elements a new compound having new temperament comes into existence i.e. Hot Wet, Hot Dry, Cold Wet, Cold Dry. The body have the Simple and Compound Organs which got their nourishment through four Humours i.e. Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile. The humour also assigned temperament as blood is hot and wet, Phlegm is cold and hot, yellow bile is hot and dry and black bile is cold and dry.


Unani medicine was originated in Greece and its founder was great philospher & Physician ,Hippocrates. He was the first Unani Physician who opened the education of Medicine to all communities, so he is known as the father of medicine in Allopathic also because modern medical science was developed on the foundation of Hippocratic philosophy of health and disease. Before Hippocrates it was restricted to the Aesclabius family only.  

Unani system of medicine was introduced to India by the Arabs,  and soon it took firm roots in the soil. The Delhi Sultans, the khiljis, the Tughlaqs and the Mughal Emperors provided state patronage to the scholars and even enrolled some as state employees and court physicians. The system found immediate favour with the masses and soon spread all over the country. During the therteenth and seventeenth century Unani Medicine had its heyday in India. Among those who made valuable contributions to this system in the period were, to name only a few, Abu Bakr bin Ali Usman kashani, Sadruddin Damashqui, Bahwa bin khwas khan, Ali Geelani, Akbar Arzani and Mohammad Hashim Alvi Khan.
(Central Council For Research In Unani Medicine,India)

460-377 BC Unani medicine was originated in Greece and its founder was great philospher & Physician ,Hippocrates
384-322 BC Aristotle  laid down foundation of Anatomy & physiology.
130-201 BC Galen Jalinoos contributed a lot to the Unani Medicine.
Dioscorides Dioscorides was the famous physician in the Ist Century AD. He was famous for his book on Ilmuladviya(Pharmacology) named as Kitabulhashayash.
717-813AD Jabir bin Hayyan who was settled in the Arab as Royal physician was a famous physician and Chemist. He was the first who had described Chemistry.
810-895AD Ibne Raban Tabari  was famous physician and wrote a book Firdous ul Hikmat and introduced concept of official formulary
865-925 AD Abu Bakar Zarakariya Razi or Rhazes  etc. He wrote the book "Alhawi fit tibb". He was first scholar who described the concept of Acquired Immunity by his experiments in the article
980-1037AD The very eminent scholar of this period was Bu Ali Sina. He was the great philosopher, physician of the Arab. He gave a final shape to the Unani medicine & redefined many concepts based on his clinical experiences. His book Alqanoon or (The canon of medicine) was an internationally accepted book on medicine, which was taught in European countries till the 17th century. During the Spanish Period The Arabs have introduced Unani medicine in the Spain in the patronage of Spanish Ruler, many scholars contributed a lot to Unani Medicine for instance
946 -1036AD Abul Qasim Zohravi  was the famous surgeon was attached to Royal Hospital of Cordoba. He wrote a famous book on surgery "Al Tasreef"
965-1039AD Ibn-e-Haisham was a renowned scientist and Unani physician from Syria laid down the foundation of optics in his famous book"Kitabul Manazir"
1091-1162AD Ibn-e-Zohar  was a renowned physician and Scholar. He was known for his famous book "Kitabul Tasreef".
1126-1198AD Ibn Rushd  was famous for his book on Basic Principals of Unani Medicine known as Kitabul Kulliyat
1197-1248AD Ibne Baitar  was Pharmacognosist and Botanist. His famous book on extensive survey and experiments on Single Drugs of Plant origin Kitabul jameul Mufradat. Was widely acclaimed.
1210-1288 AD Ibn-e-Nafees  was the first scientist who described the blood pulmonary circulation and prescribed anatomy as a separate chapters. Present Indian Context Unani medicine in India was introduced in 1351 AD by Arabs. The first known Hakim was Zia Mohd Masood Rasheed zangi. Unani Medicine soon got acceptance by the masses due to its efficacy and nontoxicity of the drugs.
1725-1807 Hakim M. Shareef Khan  A famous Hakim of Delhi in Mughal Period. He was famous for his book Ilaj ul Amraz.
1864-1927 Hakim Ajmal Khan  Hkm Ajmal Khan. was renowned Hakim,scientist,politician and freedom fighter and a great patriot. He has established Unani and Ayurvedic College at Karol Bagh Delhi. He is remembered as Masihul Mulk Hkm Ajmal Khan.He was the first person who opened the door of research in Indian Systems of medicine and under his supervision Asarol (Rauwolfia serpentina) was analysed and isolated various alkaloids i.e. Ajmaloon, Reserpine etc and most effective drug for Hypertension was introduced in world.
1872 The first institution of Unani medicine was established in  as Oriental College at Lahore.
April 1894-9th January 1976 Hakim kabeeruddin  was very dedicated scholar of Unani Medicine . He was translated 88 Unani books of Arabic and Persian languages into Urdu. Which was the greatest achievement. Due to this achievements today, the Unani colleges in India are in existence.
Thereafter many institution came into existence. Post independence India period After independence Govt. of India at first constituted Unani pharmacopoeia Committee in 1964.,consisting of Unani experts and scientist with a view to maintain uniformity in the standards of drugs and to prescribe standards for compound formulations. And also to prescribe tests for identity, purity, efficacy and quality of the drugs. Pharmacopoeia Laboratory of Indian Medicine at Ghaziabad was established under Govt. of India to workout standards and drug testing for Indian System of Medicine at national level. Govt. of India has also established Central Council of Indian Medicine ,an statutory body,for laying down standards and maintaining uniform standard of education in the Indian System of Medicine including Unani and to regulate the practices in Indian System of Medicine. In order to develop high standards of education and research in Unani Medicine at national level a National Institute of Unani Medicine has been established at Bangalore in 1983 in collaboration with the Govt. of Karnataka which provided 55 acres of land for the Institute. In addition to these developments Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine was established in 1969.During 1978 these Council were bifurcated into separate Central Councils as such Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine was established in 1979, with a view to initiate ,guide, aid, develop, coordinate scientific research in different aspects of fundamental and applied Unani System of Medicine.
Different Temperaments And Body Humours
Standard Facts About Humours
Humours Body Substance Produced By Elements Qualities Complexion &Body
Sanguious Blood Liver Air Hot+Wet Red Cheeked, Corpulent Amorous, Happy, Generous, Optimistic, Irresponsible
Bilious Yellow Bile Spleen Fire Hot+Dry Red-Haired,Thin Violent, Vengeful, Short-tempered, Ambitious
Phlegmatic Phlegm Lungs water Cold+Wet Corpulent Sluggish, Pallid, Cowardly
Melancholic Black Bile Gall Bladder Earth Cold+Dry Sallow, Thin Introspective, Sentimental, Gluttonous
Basic Components

According to the Unani medicine system as it stands today, the human body is composed of seven natural and basic components called 'Umoor e Tabaiyah' which are responsible for maintenance of health. These are : -

  • Arkan (Elements) 
  • Mizaj (Temperament)
  • Akhlaat (Humours)
  • Aaza (Organs)
  • Arwah (Vital forces or Neuro) 
  • Quwa (Faculties) 
  • Afaal (Functions)

The loss of any one of these basic components or alteration in their physical state could lead to disease, or even death. It is highly essential to consider all these factors so as to reach the correct diagnosis and consequently the correct line of treatment.

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